Originally published in Radio Free Asia click title to be taken directly to the article on RFA's website. I'm sharing here because Woeser's experience is an excellent example of just how deep the repression of Tibetan's in their own country has extended. To be turned away from the Holy city, the heart and capital of your country, must be painfully excruciating. Tibetans should be exempt from needing special permission to enter Lhasa. China has it all wrong.
An outspoken Tibetan poet describes the experience of entering the region’s capital city.
The Qinghai-Tibet train is packed with tourists from every part of China on their way to Tibet, singing several years’ worth of songs, including “On the Train to Lhasa.” A train attendant from Hubei asks me anxiously: “What is the security situation like in Lhasa?” “Very safe for you [Han Chinese],” I say, pointedly emphasizing the “you.” Some young people sitting nearby with real Beijing accents overhear this, and ask me about it. “There are army, police and plainclothes officers lining the streets,” I tell them.
The train attendant is pretty bright, and asks: “Do Tibetans feel very constricted?” Another young person chips in: “Does this have anything to do with those Tibetans who have self-immolated?”
So some people do know about the self-immolations by Tibetans, in spite of the Party’s deafening silence on the matter. Party organs at every level prevent people from talking openly about it.
I look at them, as if they were alien beings from another land: “These aren’t isolated incidents,” I say. “More than 50 Tibetans have self-immolated, from right across the Tibetan region, even some in exile.”
Someone follows up with a question: “Why do they want to set fire to themselves?” But others are already drawing away, turning their heads to look out at the scenery.
I am very conscious of the language barrier, even though we are all speaking Chinese. I reflect that self-immolation is hardly a rare tragedy these days, but that while another culture might understand why a person would self-immolate on their own behalf, they can’t see why someone would do that on behalf of a whole ethnic group. But I’d like to say a bit more about that, and tell them about the last words uttered by some of the Tibetans who have self-immolated.
Perhaps some people won’t want to listen any more. Going to Tibet on holiday is the dream of many Chinese people, and perhaps … they just want to get on and use the 10 days’ vacation they have carefully saved up, and just can’t wait to scrawl “So-and-so was here” at every tourist destination they go to. They are mostly concerned with seeing the scenery, and the “Tibetan tourist sites” picked out in advance by their tour company. They don’t care about the local people who have nothing to do with the tourist attractions, like Tibetans who set themselves on fire.
The Buddha’s enlightenment teaches us that all living things are equal. But in reality, there are a world of differences; particularly between different ethnic groups. When our train, packed full of so many living things, arrives at Lhasa station, the majority of non-Tibetan passengers breeze easily through, so very excited to be heading off to various parts of Lhasa, and looking quite perky; even those who are immediately hit by altitude sickness.
The dozen or so Tibetan passengers, on the other hand, are stopped by armed police and their identity cards checked with a device similar to those used to swipe credit cards. When I hand my card over, I am stopped with the words, “Woeser, stay behind!”
What can the Tibetans who were stopped do about it? We are all taken into the police station next to the railway station. I can’t help thinking of all those Tibetans from Lhasa who were sent to “study classes” for brainwashing after they traveled to India at the beginning of the year to attend an initiation presided over by the Dalai Lama. Were they feeling as nervous as I am now, when they were taken from their homes by police, or intercepted on their way home?
Two young Tibetans from the southern part of Qinghai province are to be sent back home the next day, because they didn’t have a “permit to enter Tibet.” The police dealing with Tibetans pay scant heed to their pleas, repeatedly telling them that a “permit to enter Tibet” must be issued by county level police departments or above. The really funny thing is, one of the young women, who did look a bit Chinese, tells the police that she is actually a fake Tibetan, which surprises them, and they ask her why. She says she changed her nationality from Han to Tibetan in order to take advantage of positive discrimination offered to ethnic minorities in the university admissions process. “This is now a huge pain for me,” she says, admitting that she deeply regrets it.
Those Tibetans who do hold a “permit to enter Tibet” have their ID cards photocopied, and are asked to fill out the address where they will be staying in Lhasa, the reason for their trip, and their identity, as well as signing their names and adding their fingerprints in blood-red ink. I have no “permit to enter Tibet,” but as a special person required to be outside Beijing for the duration of the 18th Party Congress, I also give them my fingerprints.
When I and the two young people from [Qinghai] are finally allowed to leave the police station and enter Lhasa, they say to each other, amid sobs: “Who’d have thought it would be so hard for Tibetans to get into Lhasa?”
Translated by Luisetta Mudie.
Tsering Woeser is a Tibetan activist, poet and blogger who lives in Beijing.
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As of this writing 55 Tibetans have set themselves on fire in what is referred to as a non-violent protest of Chinese occupation and all that accompanies their colonialist rule in Tibetan regions. All but 10 of these immolators have died, and all of them are currently heralded as heroes committing acts of non-violence.
The following sentiments will likely be unpopular and some of you will even be offended, but I am unwilling to continue to sit by and pretend that self-immolation is non-violent. It is my belief that these acts are in fact incredibly violent. Non-violence goes far beyond eliminating physical injury and must also encompass emotional and psychological wellbeing. Gandhi declared that even a negative thought about someone was an act of violence.
From my work as a former crisis interventionist for a police department I can attest to the emotional and psychological injuries inflicted upon those who are witness to horrific events. Surviving family members or the person who discovers the body of an individual who has committed suicide or has died in some violent manner are traumatized, especially if they witnessed the death. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a common side effect from any event that is highly disturbing to an individual’s psyche and the level of disturbance is unpredictable and different for everyone. The effects can be devastating and disruptive to the life and overall well-being and health of the person traumatized by such events.
Self-immolations may not physically endanger others, but what of the emotional and psychological wounds inflicted upon those who witness the immolator engulfed in flames? What of those who have risked their own safety to care for the immolator who did not die immediately and bore witness to the unbearable pain of such injuries? What of the family members who are left behind, especially the young children whose parents died from their act of protest? And what of those of us who see the video’s, the pictures, read the reports and wait everyday with trepidation that another Tibetan will douse themselves in flammable liquid and become a human torch for freedom?
Living with a truly compassionate heart requires one to also understand the ramifications of ones actions in the world and how they will or will not adversely affect one’s direct or indirect sphere of influence. These acts are violent pure and simple because of the psychological and emotional harm inflicted on the witnesses and families and the community at large. It is equally violent and perverse to hope that these acts will garner support and attention for the Tibetan cause.
A scholar of Tibetan history I have spent years examining and analyzing the political history and geopolitical underpinnings of Tibet versus China and have come to understand very clearly what will and what won’t motivate a change in CCP attitudes and in the way western leaders respond to the Tibet situation. Self-immolations are not that motivator, western sympathizers may abound but the lack of action speaks volumes and has since before China even stepped foot in Tibet 62 years ago.
And as a long time supporter with many Tibetan friends I consider my family, I am heartbroken to see these misguided actions and support for its continuance. Instead of encouraging more pointless acts that have done nothing to change conditions for Tibetans in Tibet, it’s time to speak the truth and admit that self-immolation is violent; as violent as standing in the middle of street with a gun to one’s head only worse. It’s time to send a clear and strong message to Tibetans in Tibetan regions that immolations are not effective; in fact they have done more to harm Tibetan communities in those regions, than incite the desired move toward political liberation. The Tibetan diaspora need to let their brothers and sisters know that ending their lives in these violent acts won’t bring freedom or the Dalai Lama to Tibet. Stand in solidarity by encouraging them to live instead of die.
Through a collection of essays written by Tibetan scholars like Tsering Shakya and cultural anthropologists who have spent large portions of their working life dedicated to understanding Tibetan culture and history, we are given an intricate analysis of the situation in Tibet. What we won’t get from news sources, rumors, and biased viewpoints is actual analysis that starts at the foundation of the Tibetan culture. I think you’ll find a wealth of information here.
Here is the link to the front page of this particular forum on the Immolations:
Here is a link to Tsering Shakya’s essay which I found compelling and honest.
It’s been nearly a year since Phuntsog set himself on fire and essentially kicked off the stream of immolations that have continuously escalated attention to the situation in Tibet. Mainstream media is finally carrying the story with more vigor than in the past 10 months. Potentially this could create an avalanche of support for Tibet in ways we have not seen in the past.
If you are willing to vocalize your support, contact your local and national government representatives and ask them to take a stronger stance toward China.
Below are several links to reports that highlight attempts by journalists to investigate one of the biggest and most ignored stories of last year; one that shows no signs of abating this year. Let’s spread the word and make sure that Tibetan‘s receive the attention and assistance they deserve.
Join your local Tibetan community on March 10th to commemorate the 1959 uprising and please attend prayer vigils that are being held February 8th around the world. Contact your local Tibetan organization for details.
Yesterday Wednesday January 18, 2012 marked a crucial and important demonstration of the power of the internet to mobilize, educate, and influence our world. If you visited sites like Wikipedia, Google, Reddit, and our own WordPress you quickly would have realized something was different. Even more you may have been educated about two pieces of legislature circulating the U.S. Congress and Senate. The Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA) and Protect Intellectual Property Act (PIPA) on the surface appear to be aimed at controlling piracy of music, film and other copyrighted works found in plenty on the internet. I’m all for putting an end to piracy, for artists, musicians, writers, film makers to be able to protect their original work from being freely distributed across the internet. However the wording of the bills is a tad more sinister and instead infringes on the neutrality of the net that we now have. In other words it amounts to censorship and corporate and government control of internet content. If you aren’t in on the details of these two bills click here for information.
Yesterday’s internet blackout, a flood of Tweets and other social network activity and messages sent to Senate and Congress representatives has caused the momentum of these two bills to come to a near grinding halt. And it is this that excites me because it shows us how powerful the internet is in advancing a cause, spreading the word, creating a viral or epidemic like movement that actually creates change and makes a difference. From Tahrir Square to a blacked out Wikipedia the internet is playing an essential role in our collective ability to rise up and demand change in systems that do not serve the vast majority. While it is absolutely imperative that we as global citizens remain vigilant and aware of infringements on our rights it is also important that we recognize opportunities to plant seeds of change.
As we move into a politically sensitive time (Losar and March 10) I urge each of you to think about ways to utilize the internet on a global scale to affect change in Tibet. How can a movement that demands intervention on behalf of Tibet become viral through the use of the internet? What is the message that will stir activism on a grand and global scale not just among Tibetans and a few supporters? How can the message be made relevant to a larger audience and create a sense of urgency like never before?
There are many Tibetan related organizations all advocating for Tibet and Tibetans. Were they to unite under the exact same messaging and create a campaign that is more compelling and inspiring than ever and clearly states what is at stake beyond human rights, then a movement that is currently stalled could find new footing and new life. Disseminating the message consistently, actively, and without the confusion of middle way versus freedom or independence is imperative.
This is how we get governments to take action and change their continued passive stance on Tibet and China. As I keep saying the power of the people is more powerful than any government in existence today or ever. There are more of us than there are of them and when we really see that dynamic then we see where the ultimate power lies and we can unite fearlessly and create a world that is just for all beings.
In the wake of last year’s immolations, I had hoped that the New Year would bring a different story out of Tibet, but alas not. The immolations continue and today (yesterday in Tibet) a 16th Tibetan is reported to have set himself on fire in Aba, Sichuan Prefecture. This makes four people setting themselves on fire in the past week. The Associated Press distributed the most recent story noting that unrest followed the immolations and Tibetans in the area rose up in spontaneous protest only to be met with the usual military force. Woeser is quoted on her blog saying, “A young Tibetan person self-immolated … the local area has erupted in public protests and marches, and they have been met with military police fire and suppression. There are Tibetan casualties.” Phayul has posted a more detailed account of the situation in Ngaba (Aba), an area that has seen 11 immolations since March of last year.
My heart goes out to Tibetans across the globe, especially to those in the Ngaba area who must at this point be traumatized beyond simple comprehension. There is nothing I can say that will alleviate the emotional turmoil of my husband and our friends who are constantly worried about their families in Tibet. Those whose hearts break a little more with each immolation, with each death, with each report of turmoil in Tibet. I have no words to comfort and am instead filled with frustration, sadness and anger. Especially I am angry at governments who shake their fingers at China, condemn their repressive policies and ask them to behave themselves, but continue unabated trade relations. Why should China change anything when it seems the world is at their feet? When the Rupert Murdoch’s of the world eagerly and greedily reap the rewards of business dealings with China, promoting foreign investment in a country run by heartless thugs who lie, cheat, murder and behave with arrogant pomposity as they strut upon the world’s stage.
Nothing will change in China until we the people unite to overthrow corrupt people and their corporations holding sway on China’s economic growth. Not until we the people demand that governments across the globe place economic sanctions on China demanding that they adopt democracy, adhere to human rights expectations and until they are expelled from their position on the U.N. Human Rights Council. China has no right what-so-ever to be on the Human Rights Council, they have not in any way earned a place at that table. In my estimation their presence weakens and undermines the U.N. as an entity formed for the good of humanity; instead, China’s membership represents an insult to humanity.
I don’t believe that Tibetans will stop killing themselves. I want them to but I don’t think they will. This is the most attention that Tibet has received in years and maybe they see a certain kind of success in making the gravity of their situation known to the world by sacrificing their precious lives. I can’t help but wonder how many deaths will serve as the tipping point. How many will have to set themselves ablaze before meaningful intervention into the Tibetan situation occurs?
Rest in Peace. Bhod Gyalo!
Phayul Dec. 2, 2011
Fiery sacrifice by a Tibetan in Chamdo
By Tendar Tsering
Tenzin Phuntsok, a former monk in his forties, reportedly self-immolated in Chamdo area of Tibet on Thursday. Tenzin Phuntsok is believed to have survived the self-immolation and has been taken to a local hospital.
No other details are available at the time of reporting. Click here for full story
Another petition started by a member of the Tibetan Parliament in the US. can be signed via this link – White House – anyone from anywhere in the world can sign the petition. You will need to create an account with your name and email etc… If you care about the escalating situation in Tibet please, please take 5 or 10 minutes from your day and sign the petition (s) and spread the word via Twitter, Facebook, email contacts etc.
One of my favorite Tibetan blogs is Lhakar Diaries; a blog where young Tibetan exiles are reclaiming or discovering (in many cases) what it means to be Tibetan. Some of these western born Tibetans are struggling to learn the Tibetan language, wearing chupas in public non-Tibetan settings, researching the history of China’s occupation of the land of their ancestry and speaking from their personal experiences, not being spoken for by westerners or Tibetan government.
“We have created Lhakar Diaries to honor the Lhakar Movement and stand in solidarity with Tibetans inside who are fighting for the survival of the Tibetan nation and identity…………Lhakar Diaries is a platform created by and for Tibetans. So that we can speak for ourselves, about our issues”. Lhakar Diaries
This movement is perfect in timing and tone and I get inspired every time (almost) that I get a feed from the blog post. There are a couple of reasons for this inspiration. Firstly, I’ve been deeply annoyed with the limited, branded image of Tibetans as monks in maroon robes, saintly prayer flag hanging, prayer wheel spinning, prostrating old wrinkled nomadic herders living in yak hair tents persecuted by Chinese. I say limited because these images are based in reality, however, they have become the dominate mythology that governs the image of Tibet and Tibetans. These heavily mediated images leave out the larger portion of the Tibetan population in and outside of Tibet. By relegatng them to a handful of stereotyped images the full beauty of the culture itself is lost.
Serving as important reality checks of the stereotype of Tibetans, are the many blogs, video’s and activities of Tibetans in exile. For instance a young Tibetan man in France with his Shapale rap video, which I absolutely love and share with friends as often as possible, is a perfect example of Tibetan humor, Tibetan language crossing the former boundaries of rap music and successfully I might add. Also it shows how Tibetans are adapting to new influences and cultures and resisting cultural annihilation by finding creative methods of incorporating their Tibetaness into the new culture.
Secondly the Lhakar movement is a perfect form of non-violent protest in that it revitalizes the Tibetan issue and puts an alternate face on the image of Tibetans. Granted much of the content is from Tibetans in exile and given that there are only about 150,000 Tibetans living outside of Tibet the voices from this end of the Lhakar movement is not representative of Tibetans overall. The intent however to represent the Tibetan voice is there and whenever possible Tibetan voices from inside Tibet are featured on the website as well. The Lhakar movement is an act of resistance to Chinese colonialism, and in the west it is also a form of resistance to the high jacking by westerners of the Tibetan culture. Westerners as some of us know are very possessive of their ‘Tibetans’ and associated connections and in some sort of perverse way want desperately to cling to the ideal image of Tibetan culture as being a model for the rest of us to follow (thanks Robert Thurman, Richard Gere).
Lhakar Diaries and other Tibetan based blogs (see Angry Tibetan Girl) serve to dispel the narrow branded image of Tibetans while personally reclaiming the culture of their ethnic origins and the reality of being part of a diaspora. It’s also an important connection to Tibet and allows them to stand in solidarity with their brothers and sisters in Tibet while bridging the gap between generations and Tibetan born exiles and western born exiles.
What I like the most I think is that these are Tibetans speaking for themselves, not being spoken for by Chinese, westerners, or even the government in exile. That’e empowering!
From High Peaks Pure Earth – the Lhakar Pledge translated –
“The Lhakar Pledge”:
1. The Nature of the Movement
This modest movement called Lhakar comes from the fact that I am Tibetan, and it is like a note reminding us that we are Tibetan in our daily life. Through this movement, we restore, renovate and keep our language, culture, identity and tradition.
Through this technique we can keep the people of the Snowland’s soul language till the end of humankind. This technique helps us retain Tibetan culture, Tibetan good morals and the traditions which are born from our soul language. This technique is easy and it is meaningful.
This Lhakar movement began in anticipation as remedial medicine for hundreds of diseases for Tibetan brothers and sisters who live in every region. I hope that many Tibetan brothers and sisters will participate in this movement without any invitation and follow the eight promises or keep even one of them, and practice it. I am requesting all Tibetans to keep this pledge as I kneel down on my knees and humbly fold my hands on my chest, and make this request innumerable times.
- I am Tibetan, from today I will speak pure Tibetan in my family.
- I am Tibetan, from today I will speak pure Tibetan whenever I meet a Tibetan.
- I am Tibetan, from today I will remind myself every day that I am a Tibetan till I die.
- I am Tibetan, from today I will wear only Tibetan traditional dress, chuba, every Wednesday.
- I am Tibetan, from today I will speak only Tibetan every Wednesday.
- I am Tibetan, from today I will learn Tibetan language.
- I am Tibetan, from today I will stop eating meat and only eat a vegetarian diet and gain more merit every Wednesday.
- I am Tibetan, from today I will only use Tibetan and speak Tibetan when I call or send a message to Tibetans
His Holiness Tenzin Gyatso was born 76 years ago today. What a treasure he is to the world and I hope he will continue to live a healthy and very long life if that is his will to do so. Happy Birthday Holiness.
A couple of days ago while musing in my spare time, I wondered not for the first time if we across the world would know of his Holiness had the Chinese not occupied Tibet in 1950. Would we know him in the way we do now? Would he have become the man he is now, who speaks to millions of people across the world and has become a beacon of light to those who need hope and wisdom in what sometimes is a seemingly dark world? He has been an amazing example of someone who has triumphed over adversity of the worst kind, allowed his heart to break but not his spirit. Personally I have found his simple wisdom and view of life to be refreshing and inspiring.
Not that I always agree with some of his more conservative views, and I can allow him the space for antiquated ideas about homosexuality for instance, because I know he does not condemn anyone or spew hate as some supposedly religious people do. He has displayed a willingness to change his views especially if science supports new evidence; even if it means changing his mind about facets of Buddhism. It is his willingness to be realistic and logical that I so admire. Additionally his elfish giggly humor and lack of ego are as treasured as the rare moments I’ve seen him break down in tears (very rare). His Holiness has grown with the changing world and remained true to his Tibetan heart and his people.
There are many naysayers who have and continue to criticize his Middle Way Approach, these are people who do not have the wisdom or foresight or Buddhist training to see the middle path. I would venture that he is in this respect a man ahead of his time. There will likely come a time where this truth bears out. Until then those who think Tibet will be free because they wave flags, protest, and burn effigies are missing the mark. As I’ve said before Tibet is a stronghold an important piece of land from which China can protect its border with India; merely a pawn in geopolitics and now a toothsome tourist destination worth billions.
Not that the Chinese would ever have taken the Middle Way seriously, although there may have been a possibility if the Free Tibet folks had toned down their rhetoric long enough to actually give it a shot. How could the CCP believe HHDL’s claims when the loudest voices speaking out for Tibet were Tibetan exiles screaming FREE TIBET? In my opinion the lack of unity within the exiled community has done more harm to the Tibetan cause than it has done good.
I know His Holiness would like to one day return to Tibet to see his beautiful homeland before he dies. I hope he can do that though he may be disappointed by the enormous changes occurring there. Maybe the Tibet of his memories and dreams is a far better place for him to return to.
In the meantime, all the best to you dearest gentle man from Tibet; may your life be even longer and filled with health and wellbeing. Thank you a thousand times for all you have given to humanity these past 76 years!
The Dragon in the Land of Snows- Tsering Shakya
This is an important compendium on the history of Tibet from 1947 to 1999 when the book was published. Shakya’s book is chock full of information regarding the involvements of India, Britain and America prior to and during the Communist takeover of Tibet, and the actions of the Communist Party. A must read for anyone serious about Tibet.
Orphans of the Cold War: America and the Tibetan Struggle for Survival – Knaus, K. J.
A fascinating look into the secret involvement of the CIA and the Tibetan resistance. Insightful first hand account of an emerging narrative in Tibet’s history.
The Story of Tibet – Thomas Laird
Written from interviews with His Holiness and a fair amount of research this book also offers some interesting insights into Tibet’s history.
Tragedy in Crimson – Tim Johnson
A recent release that I highly recommend. Johnson is a long time journalist who lived in Beijing for several years. His insight into Chinese culture and the CCP are invaluable in assessing the current situation in Tibet.
Re-Enchantment: Tibetan Buddhism Comes to the West – Jeffery Paine
A light entertaining read that doesn’t quite deliver what it promises, but rather alludes to the adoration of all things Tibet by the West. It does offer some interesting stories about Tibetan Buddhism’s entrance into the Western hemisphere.
In the Shadow of the Buddha – Matteo Pistano
Another recent release that chronicles the authors travels in Tibet and his budding spiritual practice of Tibetan Buddhism. Some valuable information however, he is clearly not unbiased and is very mmuch steeped in the magical elements of Tibet’s interpretation of Buddhism.
Seven Years in Tibet – Heinrich Harrer
Far more detailed than the movie and not as trivialized thankfully, recommend you read this before you see the movie or in addition. His accounting of experiences living in Tibet are far more personal detailed and not Hollywoodized as the movie with Brad Pitt playing Harrar.
Kundun: A Biography of the Family of the Dalai Lama – Mary Craig
Another must read if you’re interested in the early life of His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama. Entertaining insights form his family, candid conversations and as always with anything related to Tibet, intrigue!
The Dance of Seventeen Lives – Mick Brown
The life of the 16th Karmapa sets the beginning chapters of this book, gradually segueing into the life of the 17th Karmapa an important figure in Tibetan Buddhism.
DVD’s & Documentaries:
The Unwinking Gaze: The Inside Story of the Dalai Lama’s Struggle for Tibet
The Sun Behind the Clouds: Tibet’s Struggle for Freedom
Adhe, A., Blakeslee, J. (1997). The Voice that Remembers: One Woman’s Historic Fight to Free Tibet. Summerville, Mass: Wisdom Publications.
Ancient Tibet: Research Materials form the Yeshe De Project. (1986). California: Dharma Press.
Annaud, J.J. (Director). Jonston, B. (Writer). (1997). Seven Years in Tibet. (Motion picture). Sony Pictures.
Another year of the Iron Fist: China and Tibet. (2009, February). The Economist, 390(8620), 15-16. Retrieved February 21, 2011, from Platinum Periodicals. (Document ID: 1653833061).
Baratz, Nati. (Director). (2008). Unmistaken Child. [Motion picture]. Warner Brothers.
Bauer, Kenneth. (2006) Common Property and Power: Insights from a Spatial Analysis of Historical and Contemporary Pasture Boundaries among Pastoralists in Central Tibet. Journal of Political Ecology. Vol. 13 pp. 24-46. Retrieved August 16, 2011.
Brown, M. (2004). The Dance of 17 Lives: The Incredible Story of Tibet’s 17th Karmapa. London: Bloomsbury Publishing.
Chang, J. Y. (1984). A study of the relationship between the mongol yuan dynasty and the tibetan sa-skya sect (dbus, gtsang, mnga-ris, mdo, khams; china). Indiana University. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, 207-207 p. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/303311251?accountid=40581. (303311251).
Craig, M. (1997). Kundun: A Biography of the Family of the Dalai Lama. Washington, D.C.: Counterpoint Press.
Dalai Lama. (2005). The Universe in a Single Atom: The Convergence of Science and Spirituality. Morgan Road Books.
Dalai Lama (1999). Ethics for a new Millennium. New York: Riverhead Books.
Dalai Lama (1997) Sleeping, Dreaming and Dying: An Exploration of Consciousness with the Dalai Lama. Boston, MA: Wisdom Publications.
Dalai Lama (1962). My Land My People: The original autobiography of His Holiness the Dalai Lama of Tibet. New York: Hatchette Book Group.
Davenport, J. (translation) (2000). Ordinary Wisdom: Sakya Pandita’s Treasury of Good Advice. Boston, MA: Wisdom Publications.
Dugdale, Joshua. (Director) (2008). The Unwinking Gaze. [Motion picture]. World in Vision.
Fischer, Andrew. (2004). Analyzing State Growth and Social Exclusion in Tibet. NIAS Nytt: Jun 2004: No.2: Research Library p. 30. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
Fischer, Andrew. The Political Economy of Boomerang Aid in China’s Tibet. (2009, March). China Perspectives. pp. 38-54. Retrieved August 16, 2011.
Fischer, Andrew. Population Invasion” versus Urban Exclusion in the Tibetan areas of western China, (2008, December) “Population and Development Review, No. 34(4), pp. 631-662. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
Gethin, R. (1998). The Foundations of Buddhism. New York: Oxford University Press.
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Goldstein, M.C. (1997). The Snow Lion and the Dragon: China, Tibet and the Dalai Lama. University of California Press.
Goldstein, M., Childs, G., & Wangdui, P. (2010). Beijing’s “People First” Development Initiative For The Tibet Autonomous Region’s Rural Sector-A Case Study From The Shigatse Area1. The China Journal, (63), 57-0_8. Retrieved March 13, 2011, from Research Library. (Document ID: 1975402711).
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Grunfeld, Thomas. (1999). The question of Tibet. Current History: September 1999:No. 98(629) pp. 291-296. Retrieved February 21, 2011.
Gyatso, P. (1997). The Autobiography of a Tibetan Monk. New York: Grove Press.
Harrer, H. (1953). Seven Years in Tibet. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons.
He, B. (2010). A Deliberative Approach to the Tibet Autonomy Issue: Promoting Mutual Trust through Dialogue. Asian Survey, 50(4), 709-734. Retrieved February 23, 2011, from Platinum Periodicals. (Document ID: 2127862531).
Hopkirk, P. (1982, 1995). Trespassers on the Roof of the World: The Secret Exploration of Tibet. New York: Kodansha America, Inc.
Johnson, T. (2011). Tragedy in Crimson: How the Dalai Lama Conquered the World and Lost the Battle with China. New York: Nation Books.
Keay, J. (2009). China: A History. New York: Basic Books.
Knaus, K. (1999). Orphans of the Cold War America and the Tibetan Struggle for Survival. USA: Perseus Book Group.
Khetsún, T. (2008). Memories of Life in Lhasa Under Chinese Rule. Columbia University Press.
Laird, T. (2006). The Story of Tibet: conversations with the Dalai Lama. New York: Grove Press.
Laird, T. (2002). Into Tibet: The CIA’s First Atomic Spy and his Secret Expedition to Lhasa. New York: Grove Press, Inc.
Lama Thubten Yeshe (2001). The Essence of Tibetan Buddhism. Weston, MA: LamaYeshe Wisdom Archive.
Lin, H.T., (2006). Tibet and Nationalist China’s Frontier: Intrigues and Ethnopolitics, 1928-49. University of British Columbia Press.
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Lopez, D. S. (1998). Prisoners of Shangri-La: Tibetan Buddhism and the West. Chicago, Il: University of Chicago Press.
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